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It is an aluminium ore and the world’s main source of aluminium. It is a rock composed primarily of one or more aluminum hydroxide minerals. It is the world´s main source of aluminum although it needs to be refined through 2 processes. It can be used as an abrasive, propane, cement or chemical and metallurgical industries


it is a complex resource which has been used worldwide over thousands of years to produce energy, either heat or electricity. The most significant uses of coal are in electricity generation, steel production, cement manufacturing and as a liquid fuel. Coal is the primary fuel used by integrated iron and steel producers


Coke is a substance made by heating coal until it becomes almost pure carbon. Coke from coal is grey, hard, and porous. Some coke making processes produce valuable byproducts, including coal tar, ammonia, light oils, and coal gas. Coke is used most  often in making metals.

Coking Coal

Produces coke, heat source and reducing agent in Blast Furnace. Also known as metallurgical coal – is mainly used in steel production. It is different to thermal coal which is used to generate power whereas Coking Coal is heated in a coke oven which forces out impurities to produce coke, which is almost pure carbon. Approximately 70% of the world’s steel production is dependent on coking coal.

Ferro silicon nitride

is a grey powder bar material. It is an alloy additive in smelting of cold-rolling orientated silicon steel. Its addition increases the steel strength of ambient low temperature and improves corrosion-resistance, thermal shock resistance and abrasion resistance of steels. It is also a new excellent refractory material, which can be used, instead of expensive Silicon Nitride, for proof-water gunning materials in steel plant.


or Fluorite is also known as The Most Colorful Mineral in the World. Actually, pure fluorite is colorless, but its wide range of colour variations is caused by various impurities. The colours of this mineral are very intense and electric and that is where the term fluorescence comes from. The origin of the word fluorite comes from the use of fluorite as a flux in steel and aluminum processing so metallurgical fluorspar is used as a flux in iron smelting to decrease the viscosity of slags.

Gray Iron or Grey Cast Iron

It is a type of cast iron that has a graphitic microstructure. It is the most common cast iron and the most widely used cast material based on weight. Grey cast iron’s high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity are often exploited to make cast iron cookware and disc brake rotors.

Iron Ore

Composed by rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. Iron ore is a mineral substance that consists of oxygen and iron atoms bonded together into molecules, the primary forms of which are magnetite and hematite, also known as “natural ore”. Hematite is non-magnetic with a reddish colour and the most important ore of iron. Pure hematite mineral contains 69.9% iron whereas Magnetite mineral contains 72.4% of iron which is higher, but the presence of impurities on the latter results in lower ore grade, making more costly to produce concentrates that are used in steel smelters.

Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel, for this fact it is essential on the production of steel to our modern way of life, almost all (98%) iron ore is used in steelmaking. Steel is strong, durable and extremely versatile and about 60% of iron and steel products are used in transportation and construction, 20% in machinery manufacture, and most of the remainder in cans and containers, in the oil and gas industries, and in various appliances and other equipment

 Metallurgical Coke

It is the basic combustion that is consumed in a high furnace for the melting of iron.

Coke is coal that has been degasified in a coke mill. It provides the heat and gases necessary to melt and reduce the iron ore

 Nodular Pig Iron

Nodular Pig Iron is differentiated from other types of pig iron by its low manganese, phosphorus and sulphur contents, typically maximum 0.05% for each element.

Nodular Pig Iron constitutes the principal ferrous raw material in production of ductile iron castings.

Pig Iron

Intermediate product of the iron industry, with a very high carbon content, typically 3.5–4.5%, along with silica and other constituents of dross, which makes it very brittle, and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications.

Pig iron is made by smelting iron ore into a transportable ingot of impure high carbon-content iron in a blast furnace as an ingredient for further processing steps.


Magnetite is a mineral and one of the main iron ores. With the chemical formula Fe3O4, it is one of the oxides of iron. It is the most magnetic of all the naturally-occurring minerals on Earth. It is mined as iron ore. It is used in coal mining operations as slurry with water to remove the heavier impurities by allowing the less dense coal to float to the surface. The magnetite can be reused in this process 90% of the time.


Desulpherises and as alloying element for strength. is too brittle for that reason is mainly used in alloys, such as steel (around 13% of Manganese) to increase many beneficial characteristics such as higher tensile strength, hardness and durability. Manganese is an essential ingredient to iron and steel production, as this one cannot be produced without the other. It makes the steel harder, the same happens when alloyed with aluminum or copper, and it is used in the manufacture of construction materials.

Nickel Ore

Anti-corrosion (nickel content in stainless steel 8-10%). is a naturally occurring ore found in asteroids. It can be processed in a Refinery or an Arc Furnace to produce Nickel Ingots. Nickel Ore has a gritty red-tan texture, almost like sandstone and it is similar in appearance to Iron Ore although Nickel is a lighter brown, and has less blemishes. They can be distinguished by looking at the shade and any impurities.

Steelmaking pig iron:

to produce steel from Pig iron, impurities like carbon, Manganese, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur among others must be removed. The high content in carbon makes this metal to melt down all of the sudden instead of slowly when heated.